Assessment Answers | Analysis of Environmental Factors: NUR302

Nursing Assignment
1
Table of Contents
Introduction/Background ………………………………………………………………………… …

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NursingAssignment
1
TableofContents
Introduction/Background……………………………………………………………………………………….2
1.0.Discussiononhowleadaffectsone’shealth……………………………………………………….2
2.0.Identificationofthesourceofexposure……………………………………………………………..3
3.0.Signs/Symptoms……………………………………………………………………………………………..3
4.0.AffectedRegions…………………………………………………………………………………………….5
5.0.At-RiskPopulation………………………………………………………………………………………….5
SummaryofFindings/Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………5
References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………6
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Introduction/Background
Acertainnumberofenvironmentalissueshasanimpedingeffectonhumanhealthand
society.Thisincludesbutisnotlimitedtochemicalpollution,airandwaterpollution,disease-
causingmicrobesandothers.Thisresearchreportaimstoananalysisofoneofthespecific
environmentalfactors,”lead”,anditseffectonhumanhealth.
Inthefollowingsectionofthereport,adetaileddiscussiononhowleadaffectsone’s
health,identificationofthesourceofexposureofleadpoisoning,signandsymptomsoflead
poisoning,alongwiththedetailsoftheaffectedregionandpopulation,ispresented.
1.0.Discussiononhowleadaffectsone’shealth
Leadisanelementnaturallypresentintheenvironment,specificallyintheearth’scrust.
Whileleadhasseveralbenefitsandusage,itcanbeseverelytoxictohumansandanimals.Apart
fromtheirnaturaloccurrences,leadcanremainintheairasdustparticles,whicharemostlya
resultoffuelcombustionfromautomobiles.
Leadexposurehasseriousconsequencesonhumanhealth,especiallychildren.Ahigh
levelofenvironmentalleadexposurecanattackthecentralnervoussystem(CNS)andbrain,
resultingincausingconvulsions,comaandevendeath.Leadpoisoninghasaverysevereeffect
onchildren,andtheindividualswhosurviveleadpoisoningmightbeleftwithseverebehavioral
disordersandintellectualdisabilities(Shabanietal.,2020).Dependingonthelevelofexposure
toleadpoisoning,leadcanaffecttheimmunesystem,reproductiveanddevelopmentsystem,and
nervousandcardiovascularsystems.
WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)hasrecognizedleadasoneofthetencompoundsthat
actasaconcernforpublichealthandrequirestrictactionforprotectingthehealthofthe
individuals.Oncetheleadistakenintothebody,itdistributesthroughoutthebodythrough
blood,finallyaccumulatinginthebones(Shukla,Shukla&Tiwari,2018).Thenegativeeffectof
environmentalleadismostlikelytobeencounteredincurrentpopulationshavinganeurological
impactonchildren.Researchesindicatethatyoungchildrenandinfantsarehighlysensitiveto
leadexposure,andhenceproperidentificationofthesourceofexposuretoleadpoisoningis
necessary.
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Theprimaryconcernrelatedtoleadpoisoningisleadpoisoningthatareasymptomaticin
nature,andaremorecommoninchildren.Thepresenceofleadinbloodislinkedwithdamages
inneurocognitiveandotherbehavioralgrowth,whicharemostlyirreversible(Mayans,2019).
Leadpoisoningcanhaveasevereeffectonchildrenandpregnantwomen.Localriskfactors
relatedtoleadpoisoningcanbesubstantial,andhenceproperlytargetedscreeningoflead
poisoningisnecessary.Forappropriatescreeningandpreventionofleadpoisoning,thesourceof
exposureisrequiredtobeidentified.
2.0.Identificationofthesourceofexposure
Asdiscussedearlier,leadcanbepresentintheenvironmenttoasmallextent,especially
intheearth’scrust.However,certainman-madesourcesresultinenvironmentallead
contamination.Thesesourcesincludesmelting,mining,industrialandrecyclingactions.
Furthermore,thecontinualuseofleadedpaintandleadaviationfuelincertaincountriesproves
tobeamajorsourceofleadexposure.Statisticsindicatethatmorethanthree-quartersoftotal
leadconsumptionacrosstheglobeisduetothemanufacturingoflead-acidbatteriesneededfor
motorizedvehicles.Therefore,itcanbesaidthattheairpollutionfromthecombustionoffossil
fuel,contaminationofair,waterandsoilduetosmelting,miningandmanufacturingactivities
provestobeamajorsourceofexposuretoleadpoisoning(Miracle,2017).
Furthermore,leadisanaturallypresentubiquitousmaterialinair,dust,soil,andwater.
Asindicatedearlier,itisextensivelyfoundinindustrialproductssuchaspetrol,ceramics,paints,
foodcans,batteries,cosmetics,crystalvessels,jewelry,ceramicglasses,stainedglassesandtoys
(Honetal.,2017).Therefore,allthesedailyusagecommoditiescanactasaseveresourceof
exposuretowardsleadpoising.Consideringitssignificantusage,itisdifficulttocompletely
eliminateleadfromanycity.Therefore,itisnecessarytoidentifythesignandsymptomsoflead
poisoningandtakeimmediatemedicalcare.
3.0.Signs/Symptoms
Leadpoisoningcanbeverydifficulttodetect,mainlybecauseitmightnotshowany
symptomsatall.Thesymptomsofleadexposurearevariedasleadpoisoningbuildupvery
slowlyinthehumanbody(Vorvolakos,Arseniou&Samakouri,2016).Signsofleadpoisoning
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canbedetectedonlyafterrepeatedleadexposure,andthesymptomsofrepeatedexposureare
listedasfollows-
Abdominalcrampsandseverepain
Severeconstipation
Hostilebehavior
Sleepproblems
Severeheadache
Lossofdevelopmentskillsinchildren
Highbloodpressure
Lossofappetite
Anemia
Kidneydysfunction
Memoryloss
Numbnessortingling
Theabove-listedpointsarethegeneralsymptomsofleadpoisoning.Itcanbeseverein
thecaseofchildren.Sinceachild’sbrainisstilldeveloping,leadpoisingresultsinintellectual
disabilityandsymptomsofthesamearelistedasfollows-
Behavioralproblems
Problemswithhearing
LowIQ
Delaysinnormalgrowth
Asevereandtoxicdoseofleadpoisoningmightresultinemergencysymptoms,which
arelistedasfollows-
Severepainintheabdomen
Muscleweakness
Coma
Vomiting
Seizures
Encephalopathy
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Thesearemajorsignsandsymptomsrelatedtoleadpoising.
4.0.AffectedRegions
Somecountrieshavehigherriskexposurethanothers.Aslewofmediumandlow-
incomecountriessuchasIndia,thePhilippinesandMexicoarethemostexposedcountrytolead
poisoning.Themostsignificantcontributortogloballeadpoisoningiscarbatteryrecycling.
Irrespectiveofthefactthat,leadhasbeenbarredfromgasolineandpaint,theunderprivileged
areasofcontemporarycitiesandtransitionzonescomeunderhighlyaffectedregions(Reuben,
2018).Furthermore,theareaaroundtheleadminesislargelyimpactedaswell.
5.0.At-RiskPopulation
Thegreatestriskofriskexposureisforthechildren.Childrenlivinginhouseholdsbelow
thepovertylevelandhousingbuiltbefore1978areatthegreatestriskofleadexposure.Theat-
riskpopulationfromtheleadexposurearelistedasfollows(deSouza,deAndrade&Dalmolin,
2018)-
Childrenbelowtheagegroupof13
Childreninfamiliesthatfallunderbelowpovertylevel
African-Americans
Peoplestayinginlargemetropolitanareas
Peoplestayinginolderhousingbuiltbefore1978
MexicanAmericans
SummaryofFindings/Conclusion
Thereportprovidesacomprehensiveideaoftheconceptofleadpoisoninganditseffect
onthehumanpopulation.Thesymptomsandsourcesofexposureareidentifiedinthereport.
Seekingtimelymedicalattentionisnecessaryifthesymptomspersist.
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References
deSouza,I.D.,deAndrade,A.S.,&Dalmolin,R.J.S.(2018).Lead-interactingproteinsand
theirimplicationinleadpoisoning.Criticalreviewsintoxicology,48(5),375-386.
Hon,K.L.,Fung,C.K.,&Leung,A.K.(2017).Childhoodleadpoisoning:anoverview.Hong
KongMedJ,23(6),616-621.doi:10.12809/hkmj176214.PMID:29026055.
Mayans,L.(2019).Leadpoisoninginchildren.Americanfamilyphysician,100(1),24-30..
PMID:31259498.
Miracle,V.A.(2017).Leadpoisoninginchildrenandadults.DimensionsofCriticalCare
Nursing,36(1),71-73.doi:10.1097/DCC.0000000000000227.PMID:27902665.
Reuben,A.(2018).Childhoodleadexposureandadultneurodegenerativedisease.Journalof
Alzheimer’sDisease,64(1),17-42.doi:10.3233/JAD-180267.PMID:29865081;PMCID:
PMC6454899.
Shabani,M.,Hadeiy,S.K.,Parhizgar,P.,Zamani,N.,Mehrad,H.,Hassanian-Moghaddam,H.,
&Phillips,S.(2020).Leadpoisoning;aneglectedpotentialdiagnosisinabdominal
pain.BMCgastroenterology,20(1),1-8.
Shukla,V.,Shukla,P.,&Tiwari,A.(2018).Leadpoisoning.IndianJournalofMedical
Specialities,9(3),146-149.
Vorvolakos,T.,Arseniou,S.,&Samakouri,M.(2016).Thereisnosafethresholdforlead
exposure:alphaliteraturereview.Psychiatriki,27(3),204-214.doi:
10.22365/jpsych.2016.273.204.PMID:27837574.

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