ENGLISH 1302 Problem-Solution Proposal
Purpose: To persuade the audience of the following: 1) a problem/issue exists (your arguable issue/your question is your confirmation that a problem exists), 2) there is a way to solve the issue OR improve the situation, and 3) the proposed solution is beneficial. Audience: An organization, foundation, group, website, publication, foundation, individual, etc., who has the authority to grant what you propose. You have to choose a specific audience (no “American people,” “people interested in my topic,” or “government”) for your paper. Name your audience by a proper noun (i.e., you have to capitalize it). You must address your audience twice in the proposal: once in the problem section and once in the conclusion section.
Format: This is not a traditional essay. This is a proposal. You are proposing a solution or an improvement to your issue. It requires a different format than you are used to writing. It requires a proposal format. There is a title page with one required and cited visual and bold sections, and sometimes italics for subsections. There are also two additional visuals needed for the Problem section. However, the paragraphs and citations follow standard MLA. Overview of the Proposal by organized, formatted, bold sections that are organized for your proposal:
1. Problem or Issue: Provide an overview and introduction of the problem or arguable issue, including short quotations or paraphrases from sources, each documented with MLA formatted in-text citations. You need two visual sources within this section, and the one on the title page does not count, but you must have a title page visual. Remember to use language designed to convince (appeals: logos, ethos, pathos) your audience about the problem. Think about the values and emotions you share with your audience and consider how you might appeal to them through the appeals. Here are some tips to help persuade your audience to care about your issue:
• Try to evoke emotions (sympathy, outrage, anger, delight, awe, horror, etc.) in your audience that make your paper more moving.
• Try to evoke sensations (seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, smelling) in your audience that
make your writing vivid and help readers experience things imaginatively.
• Appeal to values (freedom, justice, tolerance, fairness, equality, etc.) that you share with your audience.
In this section, also add your opinion. Where do you stand? This should be at the end of this first problem section, and you also need to mention your audience directly. Who did you pick to propose this solution to?
2. Solution: Provide a realistic solution that will alleviate OR improve the situation within context. This solution or improvement should be the central position of the proposal. Address at least
one extended counterargument to some part of your issue in this section. You may choose a hypothetical naysayer or a real opponent found in your sources if your solution has multiple parts, subhead with italics. To counter-argue, follow below:
• name and describe your opponent(s). • describe your opponent’s position fairly and accurately. • respond with a well-considered and reasonable rebuttal.
3. Benefits of the Solution: Provide compelling reasons why readers must act on your solution.
Explain the limits of existing solutions, and explain the positive and beneficial implications of your solution or improvement idea. Also, create subheadings in italics if your solution has multiple benefits.
4. Conclusion: Reiterate the solution’s main elements and remind readers why this solution will help with the problem. Convince readers this action is necessary and conclude with a specific call to action directly to your audience. So, you are directly addressing your audience again in this paragraph
5. MLA Works Cited Page: The final page is your works cited page; list the MLA citations from all
sources used in the paper. At least three of your sources are from the visuals. Requirements:
• MLA formatting for in-text citations and Works Cited page
• Works Cited page listing reliable sources that are cited within the essay
• About 4 pages of text is the average
• Appealing Visual Design • Uniform headings of Problem, Solution, Benefits, and Conclusion in bold. • TWO Visual Elements, such as data/graph and/or image related to proposal
• Caption for each visual element that explains the relevance of the image. Evaluation (Rubric) will be based on the following:
➢ Explanation of Issues: The Issue/Problem to be considered critically is stated, described, and clarified, so omissions do not seriously impede that understanding.
➢ Evidence: Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/evaluation to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis. Viewpoints of experts are subject to questioning.
➢ Student’s Position: Specific position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis) considers the complexities of an issue. Others’ points of view are acknowledged within position (perspective, thesis/hypothesis).
➢ Content Development: The proposal uses appropriate, relevant, and compelling content to explore ideas within the context of the discipline and shape of the whole work.
➢ Sources: The writer demonstrates a consistent use of credible, relevant authorities and visuals to support ideas situated within the writing discipline and genre.
➢ Control of Syntax and Mechanics: The language is a straightforward language that generally conveys meaning to readers. The language in the proposal has few errors.
Epidemics and Air Travel
Ensuring Safety for Everyone during Travel
This image elaborates the presence of various infectious micro-organisms that are not visible
to our eyes during travel. Additionally, it shows physically healthy-appearing travelers are
sometimes carrying diseases that might transmit to other vulnerable members of the society,
such as children and the elderly (Wald).
Presented by: Student Name
Insert due date , 2022
Which strategies can keep air travel safe during epidemics? Air travel restrictions are
one of the initial emergency rapid responses to control any infectious diseases. Especially
when the disease etiology is a viral infection and is spreading through airborne droplets, they
are highly contagious. Moreover, due to the incubation period after acquiring the infection,
infected individuals do not exhibit symptoms days after being infected. Then, these infected
individuals without symptoms carry the viruses to their destinations, including other counties,
via an airplane within hours.
Consequently, they spread the viral infection, which creates global chaos. Globally,
there have been various epidemic threats. Figure 1 shows a list of six major communicable
disease epidemic threats from 2002-2015 (United States Government, p. 5). In 2003 SARS
outbreak lasted for six months. Similarly, infections like H5N1 since 2003 to date, H1N1
since 2009 to date, since 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, since 2013 H7N9
Influenza, and since 2014 Ebola diseases have already caused epidemics affecting multiple
countries. These diseases have posed either relatively less, similar, or greater impact as the
COVID-19 has caused in the world since December 2019 and in the U.S. since February
2020. Hence, situations like disease epidemics could be known as commonly occurring issues
that need permanent solutions.
Previously, the air travel ban had been instigated at various instances to control these
highly contagious diseases such as Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
outbreaks (Mateus 1). During an epidemic, when individuals travel by air, various challenges
are faced by the travel destinations, passengers, and airlines. Among them, the financial burden
is a concern of mutual interest that affects each of these stakeholders by increasing costs.
Hence, a temporary air travel ban has not remained effective (Belluz, Hoffman, Peak, et al.).
The recipient country would like to keep down the costs from health care that are increased
Figure 1: Major Epidemic Threats since 2002 to 2015. It shows a list of six major communicable disease epidemic threats from 2002-2015
(United States Government Accountability Office 5). In 2003 SARS outbreak lasted for 6 months. Similarly, infections like H5N1 since 2003 to date, H1N1 since 2009 to date, since 2012 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, since 2013 H7N9 Influenza, and since 2014 Ebola
diseases have already caused epidemics affecting multiple countries. These diseases have posed either relatively less, similar, or greater
impact as the COVID-19 has caused in the world since December, 2019, and in U.S. since February 2020 (United States Government, et al., p. 5)).
Then, the individuals would like to gain the income they lost by visiting foreign
counties. Similarly, the air travel agencies would like to keep their financial revenue coming
in round the year. The United States welcomes individuals from all parts of the world. This is
evident in Figure 2 when individuals from across the globe come to visit here (United States
Government, p. 14). These visitors land at the twelve major airports in the U.S.’s highly
populous and urban cities, making the U.S. highly vulnerable.
Nevertheless, the statistics of the number of affected cases of the recent situation of
the Novel Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19 is increasing (World Health Organization).
This infection started only a couple of months ago, but it has affected tens of thousands of
individuals in several countries. Initially, this highly contingent disease was not expected to
be extremely life-threatening, and the mortality rate expected was two percent. However, the
situation has worsened in just a few days, and the actual mortality rate is of 3.4 percent
globally (World Health Organization). Besides, it is important to understand this might be
just the tip of the iceberg because mortalities might be underreported or unreported
(Achenbach 1). Hence, it becomes important for the Transportation Security Administration
(TSA) to implement certain strategies that can keep highly contingent diseases away that are
epidemic in various part of the world. Thus, ban on air travel is not the solution for these
highly contagious illnesses.
Figure 2: It shows the top five U.S. International Arrival Airports for Five Global Regions, 2014 (United States Government Accountability
Office 14). Besides, the visitors land at the twelve major airports in highly populous and urban cities of the U.S., making the U.S. highly
Additionally, there is a need for solutions from evidence-based practices to be
implemented by the TSA at the airport receiving terminals. These strategies are cost-effective
and efficiently help to prevent epidemics to their local population.
TSA can help us avoid spreading several contagious diseases by enforcing a complete
immunization status policy and health education. Here, we are not just focusing only on the
current COVID-19, but we are taking all vaccine-preventable diseases into account. This is
because various diseases eradicated from the U.S. decades ago are emerging due to the
increasing number of travelers worldwide. Advocates against vaccines feel it’s a personal
choice and that it does not help stop the spread. However, they fail to see the scientific data
and the benefit to the global community.
According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), individuals must
get vaccinated even before traveling (CDC 1). Additionally, they should get vaccinated at
least one month before their expected visit (CDC 2). This means that scientific experts share
preexisting evidence-based guidelines about the importance of vaccination status before
travel. Presently, there is only one specific solution to infectious diseases. This solution is the
implementation of CDC’s guidelines for travel, enforcing complete immunization status when
visitors land in the U.S. The primary intervention will ensure that each traveler comes to the
U.S. with a medically certified immunization record. On the other hand, various groups in the
community might not get vaccinated due to various cultural, religious, or financial reasons.
However, it is crucial to understand the safeguard of the majority population who vaccinate
versus those who do not.
Another essential and evidence-based intervention that will cater to the needs of those
who would not be interested in getting vaccinated is health education. At the portal of entry
in the U.S., if individuals arriving receive formal health education about and protection
against infectious disease. All those who deny vaccination should be given health education
regarding disease control and prevention measures. A study evaluated the effectiveness of
health education. This study was performed in consultation with travel medicine and
international vaccination at the Reims University Hospital. It showed higher levels of
knowledge regarding disease control and prevention than the status before vaccination among
Hajj pilgrim adult participants (Migault et al. 30). Thus, health education would be an
effective and acceptable intervention to avoid spreading infectious diseases.
There are various benefits of Immunization and health education for the individual
and the countries.
Safety for Everyone
The interventions of enforcing Immunization and health education will bring safety
for U.S. citizens and travelers. First, it will save the traveler from spreading novel and fatal
illnesses to our citizens. Additionally, it will keep the traveler away from several diseases that
he might have acquired during closed space air travel and transits at high-risk destinations.
Second, it will save the clinical costs born by the individuals and health systems. Moreover, it
will protect the travel destination from novel and previously eradicated diseases.
Less the burden on the healthcare system
Various studies have shown the effectiveness of vaccination and health education,
saving costs on health systems. One of those studies conducted in the U.S. by Hyle et al
showed that more individuals got vaccinated for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) before
travel (Hyle et al, p. 1) as it was a travel requirement. This study showed that vaccination
could reduce the impact and costs of the disease treatment. Hence, when vaccination status is
monitored, if a vaccine got invented for COVID-19, people will be more likely to remain
vaccinated. Hence, vaccinated individuals will be less likely to get sick and spread disease; as
a result, fewer people will get sick, and there will be less burden on the healthcare system.
Besides the costs, another benefit of Immunization will be the creation of herd
immunity among the population. When a certain number of individuals are vaccinated or
immunized against a disease, herd immunity protects the rest of the population. A study on
travelers’ diarrhea showed that even if one out of every ten individuals get immunized, herd
immunity is achieved (Rosa et al. 697). Thus, with this as well, fewer people will get sick,
and immunity will spread.
To sum up, there are various implications of banning air travel during the initial
policy implementation phase. The point to ponder is understanding how the policies are
ethically justifiable and effective. Evidence shows that vaccination and health education can
collectively benefit the air travelers and their destinations, The U.S. These interventions are
evidence-based, and they could cost-effectively reduce the disease incidence, prevalence, and
fatalities. Based on the literature, I recommend that the TSA mandate vaccination for
passengers and preventive health care education through a public service annoncement (PSA)
at the airports. This will benefit our nation by avoiding the spread of diseases, saving health
care costs, and building herd immunity.
Achenbach, Joel et al. “U.S. coronavirus fatality rate could be lower than global rate so far.”
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