Hydrogen is touted to be one of the most promising energy carriers which can supply the world’s energy demand. It has vast potential to provide cleaner and more reliable energy which allows the advancement of environmentally sustainable processes (Acar et al., 2019). Hydrogen is also the world’s most abundant element, accounting to an estimated 75% of all matter present (Baykara 2018). However, despite its abundance, hydrogen is rarely present in its pure form due to its tendency to bind with most elements and is thus typically found in compounds such as water, hydrocarbons, hydrides, acids, and other biological compounds (Abdin et al, 2020; Velazquez Abad and Dodds, 2017).
Prior to utilizing hydrogen as an energy carrier, it needs to be produced in pure form. Hydrogen can be produced in many ways; either via thermochemical, electrochemical or biological (Ramprakash et al, 2022). Each process has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the selection of process typically depends on the available material/compound, ease of the process, benefits, opportunities, costs, risks etc.
Thermochemical and electrochemical processes are relatively more established and able to be carried out on a large industrial scale; however, both are energy intensive. On the other hand, despite being less energy
intensive, biological process is yet to achieve the same level as those of thermochemical and electrochemical. Nevertheless, only a thorough investigation that incorporates life cycle assessment, techno-economic analysis, and other studies can help to identify the best process that suits one’s requirement.
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