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NUR-635 Topic 12 DQ 2 • Online Nursing Essays

Sample Answer for NUR-635 Topic 12 DQ 2 Included After Question

Select one of the three scenarios below. Select a medication, and discuss the ethnic, cultural, or genetic differences in the uses for the treatment of that infection. Share the mechanism of action of this medication and hints for monitoring, side effects, and drug interactions. In addition, share a clinical trial that supports the use of this agent. Include the name of the medication in the subject line so that the medications can be followed. Include references in APA format. 

Scenario 1: A 21-year-old female with no past medical history comes in complaining of frequency and urgency upon urination. Her HCG is negative. Choose a medication that has a mechanism of action of disruption of bacterial synthesis. 

Scenario 2: An 85-year-old female was recently discharged from the hospital after being treated for pneumonia. Now she comes in complaining of “burning when I urinate.” She reports having a catheter placed while in the hospital last week. Her daughter reports finding her mother’s cell phone in the refrigerator and her car keys in the microwave, which the daughter states is “very out of character for my mom.” Which type of urinary tract infection do you diagnose this patient with? Choose a medication that is used to treat urinary tract infections. Document indication for the medication, along with mechanism of action of the medication and what results you expect in order to determine if the infection has resolved. 

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Scenario 3: A 35-year-old male recently immigrated from the Asia to the United States. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis overseas and comes to you for treatment of this condition. Choose a medication that is used to treat tuberculosis. Describe the medication’s mechanism of action. What are the contraindications for this medication? Document the challenges that you may encounter when prescribing this medication. 

American Association of Colleges of Nursing Core Competencies for Professional Nursing Education  

This assignment aligns to AACN Core Competencies 1.2, 2.2, 2.5. 4.2, 6.4, 9.2 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NUR-635 Topic 12 DQ 2

Title: NUR-635 Topic 12 DQ 2 

Scenario 3: A 35-year-old male recently immigrated from the Asia to the United States. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis overseas and comes to you for treatment of this condition. Choose a medication that is used to treat tuberculosis. Describe the medication’s mechanism of action. What are the contraindications for this medication? Document the challenges that you may encounter when prescribing this medication. 

Medication: Isoniazid (INH) for Tuberculosis 

Mechanism of Action: 

Isoniazid (INH) is a first-line medication used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It is a prodrug that requires activation by the bacterial enzyme KatG (Vilchèze & Jacobs Jr, 2019). Once activated, it inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall. This disruption leads to the death of the actively replicating bacteria. 

Ethnic, Cultural, or Genetic Differences 

Isoniazid metabolism can be influenced by genetic factors, specifically related to acetylation. The acetylation process converts INH into its active and inactive metabolites. There are two acetylator phenotypes: fast acetylators and slow acetylators. Genetic polymorphisms in NAT2 (N-acetyltransferase 2) influence acetylation rates. Certain ethnic groups, such as Asians, may have a higher prevalence of slow acetylators. This could impact the rate at which INH is metabolized in the body, affecting drug efficacy and side effects. 

Contraindications 

While isoniazid is generally well-tolerated, there are contraindications and precautions to consider. These include a history of hypersensitivity to isoniazid, severe hepatic impairment, and acute liver disease (Prasad et al., 2019). Caution is advised in patients with a history of alcoholism, as isoniazid can contribute to hepatotoxicity, especially in those who consume alcohol regularly. 

Challenges in Prescribing 

Prescribing isoniazid to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds, such as the Asian population, may present challenges due to variations in acetylation rates. Slow acetylators may be at an increased risk of developing adverse effects, particularly hepatotoxicity. Monitoring liver function is crucial during isoniazid therapy, especially in populations with a higher risk of drug-induced liver injury. 

Clinical Trial 

A relevant clinical trial supporting the use of isoniazid is the “International Multicentre Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of Short-Course Chemotherapy for Tuberculosis Based on Initial Drug Sensitivity” (1972) (Menzies et al., 2009). This landmark trial demonstrated the effectiveness of isoniazid as part of short-course chemotherapy for tuberculosis, highlighting its role in reducing the duration of treatment and improving outcomes. 

  

References 

Menzies, D., Benedetti, A., Paydar, A., Martin, I., Royce, S., Pai, M., … & Burman, W. (2009). Effect of duration and intermittency of rifampin on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS medicine, 6(9), e1000146. 

Prasad, R., Singh, A., & Gupta, N. (2019). Adverse drug reactions in tuberculosis and management. indian journal of tuberculosis, 66(4), 520-532. 

Vilchèze, C., & Jacobs Jr, W. R. (2019). The isoniazid paradigm of killing, resistance, and persistence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Journal of molecular biology, 431(18), 3450-3461. 

 

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