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Provide a written response to the 3 post below. Provide at least one reference f

Provide a written response to the 3 post below. Provide at least one reference for each response.

Post1: Global health interventions in resource-limited settings are essential for addressing the vast disparities in health outcomes between developed and developing nations (Naghiloo, 2023). These interventions tackle various health challenges, from infectious diseases to chronic conditions and maternal and child health (Naghiloo, 2023). Their significance lies in saving lives and promoting sustainable development and global health equity (Naghiloo, 2023). However, limited resources, cultural barriers, and political instability complicate their implementation (Naghiloo, 2023). Learning from these challenges, stakeholders must collaborate on designing adaptable, context-specific strategies that invest in local healthcare systems, embrace technological advancements, and foster partnerships (Naghiloo, 2023). This approach is vital for achieving health equity for all, regardless of geographical and economic barriers (Naghiloo, 2023).

My thoughts

Developing research ethics capacity in low-resource settings is a task that must be shared equitably with local communities. Their active engagement ensures that research aligns with their needs and values, and their empowerment is critical to providing education and training on research ethics and strengthening local ethics review boards. Collaborative partnerships between high-resource and low-resource settings can facilitate knowledge and resource sharing while developing context-specific ethical guidelines that ensure that research respects local cultural and social norms. By valuing the input of local stakeholders and fostering mutual respect, ethical research practices can be effectively integrated and sustained within the community.


How can global health initiatives be designed to effectively address the unique challenges of resource-limited settings while promoting sustainability and respect for local cultures?


Naghiloo, Z. (2023). Global health interventions in resource-limited settings: Successes and lessons learned. Health Nexus, 1(3), 56–60.

Post 2:

People with rare diseases (RDs) often face social and cultural exclusion, lack political visibility and priority, and encounter challenges in obtaining proper diagnosis, treatment, and care (Adachi et al., 2023). The need for consistent epidemiological data across different regions and populations, combined with the low prevalence of these conditions, hampers the implementation of clinical trials and the collection of real-world data (Adachi et al., 2023). This impedes the development of effective and innovative treatments (Adachi et al., 2023). Managing the diagnosis and treatment of RDs is difficult, placing significant emotional, financial, and social burdens on patients, their families, and caregivers (Adachi et al., 2023). Despite substantial disparities between countries, RD management is a global issue (Adachi et al., 2023). Even in developed countries with advanced RD policies, budgets, and clinical guidelines, patients struggle with the healthcare system, leading to significant disparities in the quality of care and access to treatment across different social classes and communities (Adachi et al., 2023).

My thoughts:

Patient advocacy organizations and rare disease institutes can enhance awareness and reach underserved populations with low literacy levels by developing easy-to-understand educational materials that use simple language, visual aids, and culturally relevant content. Partnering with local community leaders and organizations can help build trust and effectively disseminate information. Utilizing various communication platforms, such as social media, radio, and television, can broaden outreach. Organizing community events, health fairs, and workshops provides direct engagement opportunities for personalized education. Training healthcare providers in underserved areas to recognize and refer rare disease cases can further bridge the gap between patients and resources. Collaborating with international organizations and leveraging technology, such as mobile health apps, can facilitate global information sharing. By implementing these strategies, patient advocacy organizations and rare disease institutes can significantly improve awareness and access to resources, enhancing global health equity.


How can healthcare systems and policymakers address the disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and care for rare disease patients to ensure equitable access and support across different social classes and communities?


Adachi, T., W., A., Jain, R., Nogales Crespo, K. A., Quirland Lazo, C. I., Scarpa, M., Summar, M., & Wattanasirichaigoon, D. (2023). Enhancing equitable access to rare disease diagnosis and treatment around the world: A review of evidence, policies, and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(6), 4732. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20064732 Links to an external site.

Post 3:

What are the key enablers and barriers to advancing global health research between academic researchers and communities?

Barriers: Dedicated time, funding, and academic support are common barriers that faculty researchers face in the United States (Anderson et al., 2023). Lack of training is an additional problem that can prevent research in academia (Anderson et al., 2023). Globally, there are literacy and language barriers that hamper research efforts (Saloojee and Pettifor, 2024). In addition, even if the research can be read, getting access to it costs money, which many low-income countries can’t afford; therefore, more open-access articles are needed (Saloojee and Pettifor, 2024). Levine et al. (2017) found logistics, such as lack of standardization of data collection, and limited resources, including the absence of internal review boards, to be additional barriers to global research.

Enablers: Mentorship is associated with improved scholarly activities amongst faculty in the United States (Anderson et al., 2023; King and Lazar, 2023). International organizations that supply or raise money for research and create policies that support and encourage global research are facilitators. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) has three global health initiatives including

anticipating scientific, technological, and epidemiological shifts;
setting a global research agenda to address gaps, emerging areas, and country priorities; and
strengthening confidence in science (WHO, n.d.).
This last bullet point is particularly important because when communities don’t trust scientific research, they are not likely to volunteer to be subjects, assist with study advancement, or disseminate the results from studies. Educating communities assists with building trust and helps researchers convey the importance of studies and community financial support.


Anderson, B., Shannon, K., Baca, K., Crouse, J., Ferguson, A., Margrave, A., Meyers, M., Percuoco, K., Schneider, P., Smith, J., VanNatta, M., Wells, B., Nightingale, L., & Salsbury, S. A. (2023). A scoping review to identify barriers and facilitators of research participation among chiropractic faculty. Journal of Chiropractic Education, 38(1), 50-59. doi:10.7899/JCE-23-7

King, J. S. & Lazar, B. (2023). The benefits of mentorship: Enhancing leadership skills, the workplace environment, and the delivery of health care services: A systematic literature review. Radiology Management, 45(5), 26-34.

Levine, A. C., Barry, M. A., Agrawal, P., Duber, H. C., Chang, M. P., Mackey, J. M., & Hansoti, B. (2017). Global health and emergency care: Overcoming clinical research barriers. Academic Emergency Medicine, 24(4), 484-493. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.13142 Links to an external site.

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Research for health. https://www.who.int/our-work/science-division/research-for-health Links to an external site.

Saloojee, H. & Pettifor, J. M. (2024). Maximizing access and minimizing barriers to research in low- and middle-income countries: Open access and health equity. Calcified Tissue International, 114(2), 83-85. Doi.10.1007/s00223-023-01151-7

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