Study questions (use these for guidance, as you formulate your questions and res

Study questions (use these for guidance, as you formulate your questions and responses for the discussion board):
What do these authors (Pufendorf, Locke, Hobbes, Trenchard and Gordon) mean by the terms “nature” and “natural” (eg. “state of nature” and “natural rights”)? If the state of nature is all about perfect equality and perfect liberty, why would anyone chose not to live that way? After all, we don’t actually live in a state of nature, and when we pause to reflect on it, we realize that we probably don’t ever want to. Why is the state of nature problematic, for human beings?
Where do governments come from, according to these authors? Once we have a government, how do we prevent it from abusing its authority and power?
Documents:
Samuel Pufendorf, On the Law of Nature and Nations (1672), CAPCT, Vol. 1, pp. 30-35
According to Pufendorf, what are the basic principles of natural law? Where does natural law come from, and how do we know it? Why are men created equal? Why is government necessary?
John Locke, selections from “Second Treatise on Government,” Chapters 1-3, 6-9, 18-19, in CAPCT, Vol. I, pp. 50-54, 58-62, 68-72.
According to Locke, how do governments come into existence? What are the consequences for the liberty of citizens? How does his conception differ from that of King James? Why is “patriarchalism” wrong, according to Locke? Under what circumstances is it legitimate for citizens to change their form of government?
You can find an on-line edition of Locke’s Second Treatise On Government here, along with a number of back ground essays, if you want to know more about Locke and why his ideas are important. You will have to scan through it to find the appropriate chapters.
https://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/locke-the-two-treatises-of-civil-government-hollis-ed
John Wise, “A Vindication of the New England Churches” (1717), in CAPCT, Vol. 1, pp. 80-84
Why do men leave the state of nature, according to Wise? What keeps people from doing bad things while in a state of nature? What does Wise mean by “equality?” What is the difference between a natural and a civil state? Where does a civil society come from? What is the very best form of government?
John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon, selections from “Cato’s Letters,” Letters 33, 38, 60, and 62, in CAPCT, Vol. I, pp. 85-94
According to Trenchard and Gordon in Letters 33 and 38, what is the big problem with civil government? What are the natural rights of humans, as described in Letter 60? Where does government come from? Are Trenchard and Gordn influenced by Locke? According to Trenchard and Gordon in Letter 62, what is the nature of liberty?
Secondary Sources:
“John Locke,” Encyclopedia Brittanica. See especially the section “Two Treatises on Government.” https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/John-Locke/108465#intro
“Glorious Revolution,” Encylopedia Brittanica. https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Glorious-Revolution/68046
“House of Stuart,” Encylopedia Brittanica. https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/House-of-Stuart/70016
“Commonwealthmen,” Encylopedia Brittanica.
https://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Commonwealthmen/602957

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